Types And Applications Of Common Feed Additives For Cattle
Non-protein nitrogen and nitrogenous substances include urea, biuret, ammonium salt, isobutyl diurea, etc., which can provide rumen microorganisms with the nitrogen source needed for the synthesis of bacterial proteins, so they can be used as protein additives instead of some proteins in the diet feed.
The non-protein nitrogen addition method is generally fed after uniformly mixing with the concentrate. When feeding, the amount of urea should be strictly controlled. If it is too high, it will cause ammonia poisoning. The general addition amount should not exceed 1% of the dry matter of the diet or 33% of the crude protein of the diet. Feeding the diet containing the additive should consider supplementing cobalt and sulfur, which can effectively improve the synthesis of bacterial proteins. It is strictly forbidden to dissolve the additive in water to avoid poisoning. It is better to drink water after feeding the diet for 1 hour. In addition, the diet is limited to adult cattle, and calves (within 6 months of age) are not fully developed due to rumen microflora development. In addition to the mixed feeding method, the method of adding non-protein nitrogen also has silage (that is, when adding silage, the amount of addition is generally about 0.4%), and the urea salt brick (that is, urea and salt are pressed into brick for feeding for cattle) And gelatinized urea (that is, the urea is coated with gelatinized starch, slowing the rate of ammonia release, and increasing the protein production of the bacteria).
In recent years, the research and application of direct use of natural minerals (such as medical stone, bentonite, zeolite, sepiolite, etc.) and rare earth elements to beef cattle have been greatly developed. These minerals are abundant in China, easy to mine and process. , low cost, no side effects, safe use, and great application development prospects.
Maifan stone contains a variety of beneficial elements, and it has good dissolution properties and is easily used by livestock and poultry. After being absorbed by the body, the medical stone participates in the enzymatic reaction, regulates metabolism, and promotes growth. It also absorbs toxic substances and improves the body's immunity. Adding 150 grams to 250 grams per day in the diet can have a significant weight gain effect.
Bentonite is commonly known as white clay and white clay. It contains mineral elements beneficial to livestock and poultry, regulates body metabolism, enhances immunity, absorbs poisons in the body, and adsorbs harmful bacteria, thereby improving the productivity of livestock and poultry. For beef cattle, add 1% to 3% in the concentrate, mix and feed.
Zeolites are boiled when heated at high temperatures, so they are called zeolites. Zeolite can adsorb harmful gases in the gastrointestinal tract and slowly release the adsorbed ammonia ions, which can be used to synthesize bacterial proteins in the rumen and increase the formation and alluvial of bovine protein. In addition, zeolite enhances the body's enzymes and improves the utilization of crude fiber by rumen microorganisms. When applied, it is generally added in a proportion of 5% in beef concentrate.
Rare earth is a general term for 15 elements of the lanthanide series and 17 elements such as lanthanum and cerium. Because of the special activity of these elements, they are called “industrial and agricultural vitamins” and are widely used in many fields such as metallurgy, electronics, chemicals and agriculture. In the production of livestock and poultry, as an excellent additive, it has obvious effects of promoting digestion and absorption of nutrients, promoting growth and reproduction, and preventing diseases. All rare earths are added by their salts, and rare earth nitrates are most commonly used, in addition to carbonates, chlorides, organic acid salts, and the like. For beef cattle, the amount of rare earth nitrate added is generally 6 grams to 10 grams per day, mixed with the concentrate feed.
Polyether antibiotics are also known as ionophores, including monensin (ruminin), salinomycin, lasalocid, hydantoin and maduramycin. The main role of this type of antibiotic is to regulate the proportion of volatile fatty acids in the rumen, increase the amount of propionic acid, correspondingly reduce the ratio of acetic acid and butyric acid, reduce the production of methane, improve the energy utilization rate, and increase the weight of beef cattle. And feed conversion rates have improved. The amount of monensin is divided into two cases: grazing and feeding. The grazing cattle start to feed 100 mg per day, and increase to 200 mg after 6 days. The cattle are 200 mg to 360 mg per day per day, which cannot exceed 360 mg. The amount of salinomycin is generally 10 g to 20 g per ton of concentrate, or no more than 50 mg per day. The amount of lasalocid is basically the same as that of monensin.
When the high-precision strength is used to fatten beef cattle, due to abnormal fermentation in the rumen, the rumen acidity is too high, the pH value is decreased, the rumen microflora is inhibited, the digestive ability is weakened, and acidosis is prone to occur. The main function of adding buffer is to neutralize acidic substances, adjust pH value, increase appetite, improve feed digestion ability, and thus improve production performance. Commonly used buffering agents are sodium hydrogencarbonate, magnesium oxide, phosphate, calcium carbonate and the like. The ratio of sodium hydrogencarbonate in the mixed concentrate is generally 0.5% to 2.0%, and the magnesium oxide is 0.5% to 1.0%. The combination of the two is better than the single use, and the ratio is 2 to 3:1.