The Selection Criteria Of Trace Mineral Supplementation
Trace minerals are required for all animal species. In general, the concentration of trace minerals (zinc, copper, manganese, etc.) present in most animal feeds is not suitable for growth, milk production, reproduction and reproduction performance. If you do not meet the needs of trace elements, you may have symptoms of defects. The poor bioavailability of various minerals and mineral interactions make it necessary to use highly bioavailable minerals in feed producers, premix producers, and farmers.
In Europe, 14599 tons of zinc is released into the environment through animal nutrition (EFSA Journal, 2014). EFSA aims to reduce the amount of zinc excreted into the environment by 20% through animal nutrition.
Ke Min took the lead in raising awareness of the basic selection criteria for minerals. The ideal mineral quality and characteristics are based on the following parameters:
In general, the concentration of trace minerals (zinc, copper, manganese, etc.) present in most animal feeds is not suitable for growth, milk production, reproduction and reproduction performance. Photo: Shutterstock
Solubility of zinc source
The solubility of minerals increases the probability of breaking down minerals in time. At the same time, decomposing minerals at an optimal rate before reaching the absorption site (small intestine) also plays a key role in the selection of minerals.
In vitro experiments were performed to assess the absorption and solubility of zinc provided as Kemtrace Zn MP and zinc sulfate by caco-2 cells after rumen and intestinal digestion. For the uptake experiments, caco-2 cells were cultured in plastic tissue culture wells using standard tissue culture methods. A 200 μM zinc test solution was prepared using Kemtrace Zn MP and zinc sulfate, respectively.
Studies have shown that zinc in this product is more soluble than zinc sulphate; similarly, the zinc content is also higher than that of 200 μM zinc containing Kemtrace Zn MP, Figure 1.
Absorption and retention of zinc sources
The bioavailability of minerals makes it difficult to assume that there is only a higher absorption because it considers only the excretion of minerals in the feces. It is also important to check the urine excretion of minerals to achieve bioavailability or to preserve the biological significance of minerals.
The source of zinc is mainly concerned with its low retention in animals and its excretion through urine and feces. If zinc is excreted in the environment, it will not only affect the farmers' profitability but also cause environmental pollution.
In a study performed on lambs, 93.1% of zinc was excreted in the zinc sulfate group, and 75.1% of the zinc was excreted in the Kemtrace Zn MP group. The net retained zinc (mg/kg) in the Kemtrace Zn MP group in Table 1 was significantly higher.
Difference in plasma zinc concentration
In another experiment with Holstein cows, changes in plasma zinc concentrations were studied. Cows were supplemented with 300 ppm supplemental zinc from zinc sulfate or Kemtrace Zn MP. There are 4 cows per treatment. Plasma zinc concentrations were measured at 0, 4 and 8 hours after anesthesia for 3 days. Table 2: Serum zinc levels of Kemtrace Zn MP were significantly higher than those of zinc sulfate group.
It can be concluded that feeding zinc according to the above criteria not only helps to reduce the zinc excretion, but also improves the preservation of various biological functions of the body's minerals.