Physiological Effects Of Vitamin C And Its Application In Poultry Industry
1、During the synthesis of collagen, the hydroxylation of proline requires vitamin C to participate, so VC is deficient, collagen cannot be synthesized normally, leading to cell connection disorders. The key component of the intercellular substance is collagen, which accounts for 1/3 of the body's protein and forms connective tissue, which constitutes the body skeleton. Lack of it will lead to a decrease in the elasticity of the skin, bones, blood vessels, ligaments, etc., and is also not conducive to the healing of the wound under the disease state.
2. The strength of the blood vessel wall is closely related to VC and copper ions. Capillaries are the smallest of all blood vessels, and the wall may have only one cell thickness. The strength and elasticity are determined by the elastic fibers responsible for connecting the cell collagen and the surrounding cells. When the body VC is insufficient, the capillaries are easily broken. This happens on the surface of the skin, resulting in congestion and purpura; in the visceral mucosa, bleeding can occur in the stomach, intestines, nose, kidneys, and under the periosteum. Therefore, in cases of bleeding, increasing the dose of vitamin C in the feed has a good adjuvant treatment.
3. Prevent arteriosclerosis. It can promote the excretion of cholesterol, prevent the deposition of cholesterol on the inner wall of the artery, and even dissolve the deposited atheroma. Chickens, especially adult laying hens, are typical of hyperlipidemia, and the addition of vitamin C is beneficial to the health of their circulatory system.
4. It is a water-soluble powerful antioxidant. It can protect other antioxidants such as vitamin A, vitamin E, unsaturated fatty acids from oxidation and the reduction state of intracellular glutathione, superoxide dismutase, various organisms requiring reduced thiol (-SH) enzymes. Active to prevent free radical damage to the body. Therefore, it has a certain protective effect on the tissue cells of various organs of the body, ensuring the normality and repair of organs (such as liver, kidney, etc.), cell integrity and metabolism (detoxification of the liver), function. For the treatment of avian flu, if large doses of vitamins C and E are added, it can effectively protect the ovarian follicles, the oviduct mucosa epithelium and the tissues of the body from the damage of oxidative free radicals produced in the pathological state, and reduce the occurrence of follicular liquefaction. It can be excellent for healing and recovery of later egg production.
5. Vitamin C can reduce the non-absorbable ferric iron in the feed to divalent iron, promote the absorption of iron in the intestine, improve the utilization of iron in the liver, and help treat iron deficiency anemia.
6. Anti-cancer. Rich collagen helps prevent the spread of cancer cells; VC's antioxidant effect can resist the damage of free radicals to cells and prevent cell variability; blocking nitrite and secondary amines to form strong carcinogen nitrosamines. Therefore, it has a certain inhibitory effect on the occurrence and development of animal tumor diseases.
7. Improve the body's immunity. White blood cells are rich in VC, and the VC in the white blood cells is drastically reduced when the body is infected. VC can enhance the chemotaxis and deformability of neutrophils and improve the bactericidal ability. Promote the production of lymphoblasts and improve the recognition and killing of foreign and malignant cells. Participate in the synthesis of immunoglobulins. Increase CI complement esterase activity and increase the production of complement CI. Promote the production of interferon, interfere with the transcription of viral mRNA, and inhibit the proliferation of the virus. Studies have shown that when the Vc in the blood of chickens is depleted, the ability of white blood cells to phagocytic cells is weakened, and supplementation of Vc at this time can restore the phagocytic capacity of white blood cells. Vc is also required for phagocytosis of neutrophils. Vc is essential for maintaining the function of thymic reticular cells. When chicken infectious diseases occur and become popular, the consumption of Vc in sick chickens increases, and the ability to synthesize Vc in chickens is reduced. If sufficient Vc is added in time, immune function can be restored and enhanced, and disease resistance can be enhanced. In the prevention and treatment of epidemics, feeding Vc can improve the body's response to vaccine or drug, strengthen the body's resistance to disease, shorten the course of disease, and reduce death.
8. Improve the body's ability to resist stress and emergency. The body is subjected to abnormal stimulation, such as severe pain, cold, lack of oxygen, and strong mental stimulation, which may cause tensions against abnormal stimulation. This state is accompanied by a range of bodies including sympathetic excitation, adrenal medulla and increased secretion of corticosteroids. The adrenaline and norepinephrine secreted by the adrenal medulla are converted from tyrosine, which requires the involvement of VC. Therefore, vitamin C, also known as anti-stress vitamins, is widely used in clinical and feed production. Studies have shown that mixing the proper amount of Vc in the feed can greatly reduce the cockroaches and accelerate wound healing.
9. Promote the growth of chicks, improve the performance of laying hens, the quality of eggshells and the hatching rate of laying eggs: The study found that the appropriate amount of Vc was added to the chicks' feed, and the chicks grew evenly, reducing the occurrence of stiff chickens and increasing the survival rate. Adding Vc 2.5g / 50Kg to the hen feed, the hen's egg production rate increased by 12%, and the feed consumption rate decreased by 15%. It is proved that the proper addition of Vc in the diet of the laying hen can increase the egg production rate by 5%, and each chicken can produce 18 eggs per year. It is also reported that when the temperature is 32 °C, adding Vc 60mg/kg feed can increase the egg production rate by 12% within 10 weeks; at 35°C, 44g/kg feed can add Vc, and the egg production rate can be increased by 11.1% within 20 weeks. . In addition, vitamin C can improve the quality of eggshells: studies have confirmed that hens can add Vc to drinking water before laying eggs, which can promote the absorption rate of calcium and iron in the extreme gastrointestinal tract, which can promote the new hens to lay hard shell eggs; The synthesis of collagen and elastin can improve the toughness of eggshells and effectively reduce the breakage rate of eggs. If the eggs are immersed in 0.01% Vc and 0.05% vitamin A solution for 15-20 minutes, they are dried and then hatched, and the hatching rate is increased by 18.5%.
10. Detoxification: When poultry is poisoned, using glucose plus Vc for drinking water, mixing or intravenous injection can greatly reduce the permeability of capillary wall and protect liver function. At the same time, it can strengthen the filtration and reabsorption function of the glomerulus, so that the poison is excreted.
11. Enhance the effect of deworming drugs: Parasitic diseases in chickens can affect the synthesis of Vc in chickens. At the same time, the worm also secretes toxins to poison the body, causing different degrees of allergic reaction or stress. If Vc is supplemented during treatment, it can strengthen the deworming effect of the drug and the tolerance of the body against parasitic drugs, so that the body recovers faster.