Lactic Acid Bacteria Promote FCR Piglets
Probiotics produce organic acids such as lactic acid. This has many beneficial properties for farm animals. Screening was performed to find the best probiotics for piglets and their effects on growth parameters.
Piglet weaning can be a stressful period for animals because weaning is accompanied by changes in diet from liquid to solid feed, which usually reduces daily energy and nutrient intake, so piglets are more susceptible to bacterial infections. In the past, antibiotics were sometimes used to prevent and treat infectious diseases caused by weaning stress. However, prophylactic antibiotics are banned in many parts of the world. Many feed additives are marketed as suitable replacements for prophylactic antibiotics because they have a positive effect on gut health and animal immunity. One of these products includes probiotics, living microorganisms that impart a health benefit to the host when administered in sufficient amounts. Probiotics not only help to maintain the health of piglets, but also help improve piglet growth and feed conversion.
Many microorganisms have been used as probiotics, but lactic acid bacteria (LAB) appear to be the most probiotics in pig nutrition. Early studies on the isolation and selection of LAB from pig intestines and feces to prepare pig-specific probiotic preparations have shown that the diet and species specificity of probiotics does exist. Because natural microbial communities are more likely to stabilize the intestines and spread rapidly to very stable populations; therefore, the host's own isolates will be more effective probiotics than other sources. For effective probiotics, LAB should be able to survive in gastric pH and bile salts, adhere to and colonize intestinal epithelial cells. Probiotics produce organic acids, hydrogen peroxide, bacteriocins and antimicrobial compounds that can exhibit bactericidal or bacteriostatic properties. The host-specific probiotics L. plantarum and L. ididophilus (porcine intestine) and Lactobacillus flexo TUCO-5E (milk) have many benefits and have anti-microbial activity against Escherichia coli. And Salmonella. By maintaining an effective microbial balance between beneficial and harmful bacteria, increasing nutrient digestibility, growth and immune status in pigs, supplementation with species-specific probiotics confers health benefits. Feeding LAB in weaned piglets also improved antioxidant defense mechanisms (total antioxidants, superoxide dismutase, catalase, reduced glutathione and glutathione peroxidase status), thereby improving Oxidative stress
Taking into account the above background, the purpose of this study was to isolate the phenotypic and phylogenetic characteristics of LAB from piglet feces and isolate the in vitro evaluation of probiotic characteristics by LAB. A total of 30 LABs were isolated from the feces of 5 healthy piglets (28 days old). All isolates were Gram-positive, negative for cocco-bacilli and catalase. Of the 30 LAB isolates, 20 were shortlisted based on their tolerance to pH (3.0, 4.0, 7.0 and 8.0) and bile salts (0.075, 0.15, 0.3 and 1.0%). However, 14 isolates were selected for further in vitro probiotic characterization because of the higher (P < 0.05) cell surface hydrophobicity to toluene (> 45%). Thereafter, a total of 36 (18 males: 18 females) early weaning (28 day old) crosses (Local x Landrace) piglets were used for in vivo experiments. The piglets were divided into three diet groups (4 replicates each, 3 each) and were completely randomized. Includes dietary therapy; T0 (control basal diet), T1 (basic diet + Lactobacillus acidophilus NCDC15; conventional dairy-specific probiotics) and T2 (basal diet + Pediococcus lacticis FT28; pig-specific probiotics) . The feeding experiment was carried out for 90 days. Growth performance was monitored throughout the 90 day experiment. Daily feeds provided and rejected are weighed and recorded to monitor daily dry matter intake (DMI). Piglets were individually weighed at weekly intervals to calculate growth parameters. Average daily gain (ADG) and feed conversion ratio (FCR). At the end of the feeding experiment, a digestion test was carried out for 7 days (adapted for 3 days + 4 days of collection) to understand the digestibility of nutrients.
FCR improvement in the probiotic group
There was no difference in the final body weight (g / d) and DM intake (g / d) in the treatment group (P > 0.05) (Table 1). However, compared with the control (t0), the feed conversion ratios of the supplemented probiotics (t1 and t2) groups were improved (P < 0.05). The gross apparent digestibility of crude protein in t2 animals fed p was significantly higher (p> <0.05). Acidilactici ft28 compared to t0 and t1. Compared with t0, the crude fiber digestibility of the t2 group was higher (p> <0.05), while t1 was equivalent to t2 and t0, but had no effect on the digestibility of dry matter, organic matter and ether extract. In summary, the results of this study preliminarily describe the establishment of species-specific probiotics by applying effective isolate selection criteria. Thirty laboratories were isolated from piglet feces. The isolate lacp28 identified as > Pediococcus acidilactici FT28 showed advantages over other isolates. The isolate Lacp28 showed broad-spectrum inhibitory activity against a large number of pathogens, including E. coli and Salmonella. It also has the ability to improve feed conversion and blood hematology, with species specificity for better protein metabolism and antioxidant properties. However, more feeding trials are needed in pigs to assess the dose per kilogram of body weight and the feeding frequency of the highest advantage.