Application Of Lysine In Pig Production
Lysine, also known as growth amino acid, is an essential substance for the synthesis of protein in human and animal tissues. It is also a major component of important enzymes such as enzymes, hormones and antibodies in the body. It is very important in the food industry, aquaculture and feed industry. Status. This article reviews the application of lysine in pig production.
1.Application of lysine in piglet production
After birth, piglets are metabolically active and grow fast, and must provide adequate nutrition. Studies have shown that insufficient lysine intake in early weaned piglets affects the function of pancreatic tissue, which affects the rapid synthesis of tissue proteins, which is not conducive to the growth and development of piglets (Huang Wei et al., 2005). In response to the stress problems in the early weaning stage of piglets, Ding Fayuan et al. (1995) found that reducing the dietary protein of early weaned piglets and adding limiting amino acids can reduce the diarrhea rate of piglets. This shows that lysine can reduce the stress of piglets and has great benefits for growth.
Studies have shown that before the 14th day of age, the individual is still in the adaptation stage, which is greatly affected by the environment and the diet. Adding lysine does not significantly improve the production performance. At 15 to 21 days of age, the effect of lysine is greater. After increasing the amount of lysine, the growth performance of pigs can be significantly improved. However, if the amount of lysine and feed intake continue to increase after 21 days of age, the piglets cannot be further improved. The growth performance, on the other hand, inhibited the growth of piglets (Huang Kun et al., 2009). This indicates that the lysine can not be added excessively during piglet feeding, otherwise there will be an "amino acid imbalance", which will have a negative impact on the growth and development of piglets. In this regard, Coffey's experiment concluded that there is a certain ratio between lysine and metabolic energy when feeding a high lysine diet. When adding high lysine, it is best to add fat at the same time to increase metabolic energy. The level of this can effectively improve production performance.
2.Lysine application in sow production
In production, primiparous sows and sows are fed two different sow feeds due to differences in lysine requirements.
Studies have shown that during pregnancy, mammary gland development needs to provide sufficient lysine, especially for primiparous sows. The requirement of lysine in pregnant sows is affected by factors such as feeding environment, litter size, maternal weight gain, and fetal weight. The increase in the amount of lysine consumed by sows will increase the total weight gain during pregnancy. Increased backfat and increased milk production will also affect subsequent lactation and piglet growth (Zhang Rongfei et al., 2011).
During lactation, when the feed intake does not reach the nutrients required for lactation, the sow will automatically maintain a certain amount of lactation with the body, and increasing the amount of lysine in the diet can reduce the lactation period of the sow. Individual weightlessness (King, 1993). If the sow has too much childbirth and insufficient nutrition, the weight loss will increase, and the recovery time after weaning will be long, resulting in prolonged estrus interval. Johnston et al. showed that the need for lysine in different sows during lactation was mainly affected by factors such as lactation, sow weight and litter size. Increasing the amount of lysine in the lactation of the sow during the diet can significantly increase the survival rate of the piglets, the weight gain of the litter, the weight of the weaning, and the daily gain of the individual, as well as the lactation performance of the sow.
3.Application of 3 Lysine in the Production of Growing and Finishing Pigs
Lysine is a growing amino acid that is added to the diet to increase the body's protein deposition rate. A study of a hybrid growth pig in 2004 showed that with the increase in dietary lysine, the back thickness of pigs decreased, and the area of eye muscles and lean meat deposition increased significantly.
The plasma urea nitrogen content can reflect the metabolism of protein in the body. The lower the urea nitrogen value, the higher the protein synthesis efficiency (Xi Pengbin, 2003). In studying the effects of lysine on growing and finishing pigs, Gatel (1992) found that increasing the amount of lysine in the diet reduced the release of urea nitrogen. This indicates that increasing the level of lysine can reduce the concentration of urea nitrogen in pig plasma and improve the production performance. Zhang et al. used the method of rectal anastomosis in 2005 to determine the requirements for digestible lysine in growing and finishing pigs were 0.656% and 0.453%, respectively. The study of lysine on blood physical and chemical indicators showed that lysine can significantly reduce the content of urea nitrogen and triglyceride in the plasma of growing fattening pigs, which is beneficial to pig health.
Improving the stress production performance of pigs is an important part of production. Experiments have shown that reducing the amount of protein in the diet and supplementing the amount of limiting amino acids can effectively improve the stress of pigs. According to a study by Kerr 1987, there is a strong link between liver and heat production. Feeding pigs with diets supplemented with low protein lysine results in a decrease in liver weight in pigs and a decrease in heat stress. In addition, the addition of lysine can also balance the amino acids in the diet and reduce the discharge of urea nitrogen, thereby relieving high temperature stress.
In summary, the reasonable addition of lysine not only enables pigs to achieve optimal production performance, but also relates to dietary utilization and economic benefits. Although the research on lysine in China is already sufficient, the effects of Lys on protein catabolism remain to be further studied in the absence of Lys. Moreover, the current data of Lys needs are divided by weight, which is relatively rough. How to dynamically prepare feeds in different growth stages and environments still needs research. We should combine practical experience and experimental research to determine the amount of lysine added to achieve maximum production efficiency.