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Why must I add feed additives?

- Jan 28, 2019 -

Why must I add feed additives?

The occurrence of the "Clenbuterol" incident has made the feed additives that were only familiar to animal nutrition scholars and production technicians in the past, and has received widespread attention from the whole society.

This is an era of good fortune. We can choose our favorite meat, eggs and milk on the shelves of the crowd. However, the chemical terms that “clenbuterol” and antibiotics suddenly popped out magnified the public's worries about animal feed additives. So, is it not necessary to use feed additives? How to solve the quality and safety problems of animal foods?

Appropriate use of feed additives is permitted

"Now I don't want to eat or drink, but today I said that there is "lean meat" in the meat. Tomorrow, I said that there are antibiotic residues in the milk. I really don't know what to eat, what can be eaten with confidence." In Xiaodian District, Taiyuan City In the vegetable market, Aunt Liu Guiqin, who is picking eggs, keeps complaining.

Like Aunt Liu, as food quality and safety incidents continue to occur, more and more people are now paying more attention to food safety: foreign eggs are not as good as earth eggs; livestock and poultry grown up with feed are no longer eating as long as they used to eat. Large livestock and poultry meat; good pork cut and placed for a period of time, the surface will have a layer of green... With this concern, feed additives, a term that is unfamiliar to most people, began to enter people's Vision.

Then, why should we use feed additives for livestock and poultry farming?

He Dongchang, director and researcher of the Institute of Animal Husbandry and Veterinary Medicine of the Provincial Academy of Agricultural Sciences, explained that the growth and development of animals requires the same nutrients as energy, protein, amino acids and mineral trace elements. When ordinary feed cannot meet the growth needs of animals, Some small or trace substances are added to the feed in the form of additives to improve feed utilization efficiency, increase palatability, promote normal animal development, accelerate growth, control animal diseases, facilitate storage and preservation of feed, and improve feed processing performance. .

It can be said that the production and application of feed additives is a sign of the level of feed mix. Without feed additives, it is difficult to formulate feeds that meet animal needs and nutritional balance.

Feed additives can be divided into nutritional additives and non-nutritive additives. Nutritional additives include minerals, vitamins, and amino acids, which are mainly used to meet the nutrients needed for the growth and development of livestock and poultry. For example, copper has a role in promoting growth and development; selenium and vitamin E have an effect of increasing reproduction rate. Non-nutritive additives include enzyme preparations, herbal additives, sweeteners, antibiotics, and the like. Enzyme preparation can balance the flora in livestock and poultry; sweetener is used to increase the taste of feed; China's unique Chinese herbal medicine additive not only has health care function, but also can improve the flavor and taste of livestock and poultry products. It is called green additive in the industry.

There are many kinds of feed additives. With the development of animal nutrition, new feed additive varieties are often introduced, and some feed additives will be eliminated or banned. Therefore, the varieties of feed additives are often in the old and new. At present, the feed additives allowed by the Ministry of Agriculture of China include 13 kinds of 191 kinds of amino acids, vitamins, mineral trace elements, enzyme preparations and feed microorganisms; there are 6 categories and 55 kinds of feed additives forbidden.

Most animal food safety incidents are caused by illegal use or excessive use of feed additives.

The feed additive is small in the compound feed, but the effect is great, which determines the quality of the compound feed. The wide application of feed additives can shorten the feeding cycle, reduce the cost of feeding, and give full play to the production capacity of animals, with significant economic and social benefits.

However, with the use of feed additives, there is a problem of meat, egg, milk taste and animal food quality and safety. He Dongchang researcher believes that this is a "quality" that exists in the production of agricultural and sideline products and will exist for a long time in a certain period of time. The contradiction between "and quantity". Because in general, the quality of livestock and poultry products is inversely proportional to the growth rate. However, in order to meet the market demand for many years, the industrial system and technical system of the domestic aquaculture industry have been built around increasing production and relatively weak in terms of quality and safety.

In fact, from the perspective of genetics, eggshell color and egg size are determined by the breed of chicken, and have little to do with nutrients. However, because different varieties of eggs have different requirements for synthetic chicken protein, the chicken can only produce about 130 eggs a year, but the chicken that has eaten the feed additive can produce nearly 300 eggs. The amount is much, and the taste is worse. The same is true for pork. According to the growth order of the bones, muscles and fats of the pigs, if the "March 3" and "April Fertilizer" are promoted by some feed manufacturers, the taste will be less than the feeding time and the fat content will be reached. A certain percentage of pork.

Of course, it is precisely because of the unique role of feed additives that the amount of addition must meet a certain proportion, there are strict limits, otherwise the residue of feed additives will pollute the environment or cause health to consumers through meat, eggs, milk, etc. Certainly affected. For example, heavy metals such as copper and zinc may cause imbalance of trace elements in the soil; excessive selenium may cause poisoning of livestock and poultry. The green color of pork is also caused by the pigs eating high-copper feed during the growing season, causing heavy metal copper residue in the body, which turns into copper oxide after contact with air. At the same time, if too much heavy metal is added to the feed, the farmyard manure cannot be called green organic fertilizer.

For the "Clenbuterol" incident exposed during the "3.15" period this year, He Dongchang said that the "Clenbuterol" scientific name is a β-adrenergic receptor agonist compound, which was introduced to China in the early 1990s. Pigs fed "Clenbuterol" have more lean meat, red color, and good sales. Some slaughterhouses and pig dealers will purchase them at a high price. It is also very easy for farmers to use. It is enough to stir the noodles into the feed. However, it was later discovered that the use of "clenbuterol", the residue exceeded the standard, would endanger human health and easily cause poisoning. In 2002, the Ministry of Agriculture and the Ministry of Health and the State Food and Drug Administration jointly issued a catalogue of “Clenbuterol” banned. The Supreme People’s Court and the Supreme People’s Procuratorate also clarified the basis for the illegal production, sale and use of “lean meat”.

Among the feed additives, antibiotics are closely related to human health. Although antibiotics can promote animal growth and prevent bacterial infections, long-term use can cause drug resistance problems and residual problems in animals. Many countries in the world have already used them for feeding. Antibiotics are strictly regulated. The Ministry of Agriculture of China currently allows 24 kinds of antibiotics and pharmaceutical additives to be used in feed. According to different livestock species, the drug withdrawal period using different antibiotics is strictly regulated. Only after the drug holiday, livestock and poultry products that have been consumed with antibiotic feed additives can be marketed.

Strengthening market supervision and developing green and efficient feed additives is the key to solving the quality and safety of animal foods

Feed accounts for 60%-80% of the cost of breeding, and the price of feed additives is not cheap. Why is it illegal and excessive use of feed additives? It is difficult to stop using it. He Dongchang researcher told reporters that because feed additives meet the nutritional needs of animals, It can also improve animal utilization of feed, save food, prevent disease, and increase the appearance. For example, adding large doses of copper and zinc to the feed can significantly increase the growth rate of pigs, making the pigskin red hair bright and appearing extraordinary. .

So how do you strengthen the regulation of feed additives?

Cheng Jianguo, a senior animal husbandry officer of the Provincial Feed and Animal Medicine Supervision Institute, said in an interview that due to the current scattered production and operation of domestic aquaculture, nearly 3/4 of the meat, eggs and milk circulating in the market are provided by small pig farms and free-range households. A major problem in regulatory work. However, in recent years, the province has continuously increased the intensity of special treatments. It conducts random inspections on more than 500 large-scale farmers and one-town households. It requires farmers to establish breeding files for livestock and poultry. The feed must be a batch of feed produced by a company with a formal production license. At the same time, it also increases the inspection of self-produced feed, and strives to strengthen the quality and safety of animal food from the source.

However, the reality we face is that the aquaculture industry is a low-margin, high-risk industry. The market is highly volatile, and the farmers are self-interested and will pursue economic benefits one-sidedly. Therefore, in order to solve the problem of animal food safety, in addition to improving the quality and safety system as soon as possible, we must accelerate the modernization of the aquaculture industry, improve the level of agricultural production organization, provide scientific farming knowledge for farmers, and improve standardized farming skills; The quality traceability system has achieved full-scale supervision of agricultural product quality and safety, and problems have been reported, so as to ensure that the monitoring of each link of livestock and poultry products is more targeted. On the other hand, scientific research workers should also stand at the height of history and politics, develop green and efficient feed additives and promote scientific farming mode, and ensure the supply of livestock and poultry products under the premise of safety.

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